The Gospel of Wealth
And Other Timely Essays
by Andrew Carnegie

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--- Page 78. The Gospel of Wealth - IV Popular Illusions about Trusts

IV

Popular Illusions About Trusts

1. THE platforms of both parties in the coming Presidential contest are likely to ring with express or implied denunciation of trusts, in order to minister to the popular outcry against them, many of the people having been led to believe that great aggregations of capital must be inimical to the interests of the masses who have little or none. While this policy may be more or less successful for the moment, from a party point of view, it must be ephemeral, because, as the writer hopes to show, trusts cannot permanently thwart the laws of competition, and hence must prove beneficial agencies for the people.

inimical - ...They are like selfish, brutal men who are inimical, cursing and killing each other. Better that man should resemble the domestic animals than the ferocious beasts of prey, for in the estimation of God love is acceptable, whereas hatred and animosity are rejected. Why should we act contrary to the good pleasure of God? Why should we be as ferocious animals, constantly shedding blood, pillaging and destroying? Because we belong to one race or family of humankind, why should we consider all others bad and inferior, deserving of death, pillage and invasion--people of darkness, worthy of hatred and detestation by God? We see that God is kind to all. Just as He loves us, He loves all others; just as He provides for us, He provides for the rest. He nurtures and trains all with equal solicitude. (`Abdu'l-Baha, PUP, p. 264)

ephemeral - ...Hence, no matter how much man may advance in this world, he shall not attain to the station of this bird! Thus it becomes evident that in the matters of this world, however much man may strive and work to the point of death, he will be unable to earn the abundance, the freedom and the independent life of a small bird. This proves and establishes the fact that man is not created for the life of this ephemeral world--nay, rather, is he created for the acquirement of infinite perfections, for the attainment to the sublimity of the world of humanity, to be drawn nigh unto the divine threshold, and to sit on the throne of everlasting sovereignty! (`Abdu'l-Baha, Tablets of the Divine Plan, p. 45-46)

ephemeral - ...Thriving for a time through the devices which their scheming minds had conceived and supported by the ephemeral advantages which fame, ability or fortune can confer these notorious exponents of corruption and heresy have succeeded in protruding for a time their ugly features only to sink, as rapidly as they had risen, into the mire of an ignominious end. (World Order of Baha'u'llah, p. 90)

ephemeral - "In the midst of a civilization torn by strifes and enfeebled by materialism, the people of Baha are building a new world. We face at this time opportunities and responsibilities of vast magnitude and great urgency. Let each believer in his inmost heart resolve not to be seduced by the ephemeral allurements of the society around him, nor to be drawn into its feuds and short-lived enthusiasms, but instead to transfer all he can from the old world to that new one which is the vision of his longing and will be the fruit of his labours." (From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the Baha'is of the East and West, December 18, 1963)

2. The world does not spin round any faster in our day than it has for ages past, but undoubtedly new ideas in the world come into view and flash past with a rapidity hitherto unknown. It seems as if, in our time, man were chiefly absorbed in obeying the injunction to try all things. Fortunately, we evolutionists know that in the end he must and will hold fast only to that which is good for the organism known as human society. His attitude hitherto toward new things or new ideas has been one of suspicion and hesitation. We see traces of this yet in the older countries and older civilizations; but the bounding, irrepressible, "cock-sure" spirit of Western civilization seems possessed by an entirely different tendency. It grasps everything new with avidity, and is sanguine beyond measure of its merits, ever ready to discard the old, and to see in any new thing the golden

revolutionists - How great the difference between the glory of Christ and the glory of an earthly conqueror! It is related by historians that Napoleon Bonaparte I embarked secretly by night from Egypt. His destination was France. During his campaign in Palestine revolution had broken out and grave difficulties had arisen in the home government. Christian worship had been forbidden by the revolutionists. The priests of Christianity had fled in terror. France had become atheistic; anarchy prevailed. The ship sailed out into a night brilliant with the light of the moon. Napoleon was pacing up and down the deck. His officers were sitting together, talking. One of them spoke of the similarity between Bonaparte and Christ. Napoleon stopped and said grimly, "Do you think I am going back to France to establish religion?"

Jesus Christ established the religion of God through love. His sovereignty is everlasting. Napoleon overthrew governments in war and bloodshed. His dominion passed away; he himself was dethroned. Bonaparte destroyed human life; Christ was a Savior. Bonaparte controlled the physical bodies of men; Christ was a conqueror of human hearts. None of the Prophets of God were famous men, but They were unique in spiritual power. Love is the eternal sovereignty. Love is the divine power. By it all the kings of earth are overthrown and conquered. (`Abdu'l-Baha, PUP, p. 210-211)

human society - ...What mankind needeth in this day is obedience unto them that are in authority, and a faithful adherence to the cord of wisdom. The instruments which are essential to the immediate protection, the security and assurance of the human race have been entrusted to the hands, and lie in the grasp, of the governors of human society. This is the wish of God and His decree.... We cherish the hope that one of the kings of the earth will, for the sake of God, arise for the triumph of this wronged, this oppressed people. Such a king will be eternally extolled and glorified. God hath prescribed unto this people the duty of aiding whosoever will aid them, of serving his best interests, and of demonstrating to him their abiding loyalty. They who follow Me must strive, under all circumstances, to promote the welfare of whosoever will arise for the triumph of My Cause, and must at all times prove their devotion and fidelity unto him. Happy is the man that hearkeneth and observeth My counsel. Woe unto him that faileth to fulfil My wish. (Baha'u'llah, Gleanings, p. 207)

human society - ...The ages of its infancy and childhood are past, never again to return, while the Great Age, the consummation of all ages, which must signalize the coming of age of the entire human race, is yet to come. The convulsions of this transitional and most turbulent period in the annals of humanity are the essential prerequisites, and herald the inevitable approach, of that Age of Ages, "the time of the end," in which the folly and tumult of strife that has, since the dawn of history, blackened the annals of mankind, will have been finally transmuted into the wisdom and the tranquility of an undisturbed, a universal, and lasting peace, in which the discord and separation of the children of men will have given way to the worldwide reconciliation, and the complete unification of the divers elements that constitute human society (`Abdu'l-Baha, Promised Day has Come, p. 117)

human society - IV Disunity is a danger that the nations and peoples of the earth can no longer endure; the consequences are too terrible to contemplate, too obvious to require any demonstration. "The well-being of mankind," Baha'u'llah wrote more than a century ago, "its peace and security, are observing that "mankind is groaning, is dying to be led to unity, and to terminate its age-long martyrdom", Shoghi Effendi further commented that: "Unification of the whole of mankind is the hall-mark of the stage which human society is now approaching. Unity of family, of tribe, of city- state, and nation have been successively attempted and fully established. World unity is the goal towards which a harassed humanity is striving. Nation-building has come to an end. The anarchy inherent in state sovereignty is moving towards a climax. A world, growing to maturity, must abandon this fetish, recognize the oneness and wholeness of human relationships, and establish once for all the machinery that can best incarnate this fundamental principle of its life."

Page 14 All contemporary forces of change validate this view. The proofs can be discerned in the many examples already cited of the favourable signs towards world peace in current international movements and developments. The army of men and women, drawn from virtually every culture, race and nation on earth, who serve the multifarious agencies of the United Nations, represent a planetary "civil service" whose impressive accomplishments are indicative of the degree of co-operation that can be attained even under discouraging conditions. An urge towards unity, like a spiritual springtime, struggles to express itself through countless international congresses that bring together people from a vast array of disciplines. It motivates appeals for international projects involving children and youth. Indeed, it is the real source of the remarkable movement towards ecumenism by which members of historically antagonistic religions and sects seem irresistibly drawn towards one another. Together with the opposing tendency to warfare and self-aggrandizement against which it ceaselessly struggles, the drive towards world unity is one of the dominant, pervasive features of life on the planet during the closing years of the twentieth century. (Promise of World Peace)

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bow of promise. The American is the modern magician, ever exchanging old lamps for new. Panaceas for all the ills of life are more numerous than the ills. Not one doctor, but a hundred, arise, competent to cure every defect in the body politic, and none is without patients or-may we write? - dupes. We must all have our toys and our fads. It is natural for man to indulge in the delusions of hope.

delusions - Say, wretched indeed is your plight, O ye embodiments of delusion. Fear ye God and reject not the heavenly grace which hath shed radiance upon all regions. Say, He Who is the Exponent of the hidden Name hath appeared, did ye but know it. He Whose advent hath been foretold in the heavenly Scriptures is come, could ye but understand it. The world's horizon is illumined by the splendours of this Most Great Revelation. Haste ye with radiant hearts and be not of them that are bereft of understanding. The appointed Hour hath struck and mankind is laid low. Unto this bear witness the honoured servants of God. (Baha'u'llah, TOB, p. 244)

delusions - God created one earth and one mankind to people it. Man has no other habitation, but man himself has come forth and proclaimed imaginary boundary lines and territorial restrictions, naming them Germany, France, Russia, etc. And torrents of precious blood are spilled in defense of these imaginary divisions of our one human habitation, under the delusion of a fancied and limited patriotism.

After all, a claim and title to territory or native land is but a claim and attachment to the dust of earth. We live upon this earth for a few days and then rest beneath it forever. So it is our graveyard eternally. Shall man fight for the tomb which devours him, for his eternal sepulcher? What ignorance could be greater than this? To fight over his grave, to kill another for his grave! What heedlessness! What a delusion! (`Abdu'l-Baha, PUP, p. 355)

delusions - I also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; because when I called, none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that in which I delighted not. Hear the word of the LORD, ye that tremble at his word; Your brethren that hated you, that cast you out for my name's sake, said, Let the LORD be glorified: but he shall appear to your joy, and they shall be ashamed. (Isaiah 66:4-5)

Say: "Have ye seen (these) 'Partners' of yours whom ye call upon besides God? Show Me what it is they have created in the (wide) earth. Or have they a share in the heavens? Or have We given them a Book from which they (can derive) clear (evidence)?- Nay, the wrong-doers promise each other nothing but delusions. (Quran, 35.040)

3. The day is not far past when the industrial world saw its millennium in the joint-stock idea. Every department of industry was to be captured by it. Shares in every conceivable enterprise were to be distributed among the people en masse, thus insuring the much-needed redistribution of wealth, where every man was no longer a consumer only, but his own manufacturer, his own transporter, clothier, butcher, baker, and candlestick-maker. There was nothing to prevent him being in one sense his own undertaker through shares in the "Burial Company, Limited," or the "Crematorium Company," thus carrying out to his very end the grand joint-stock corporation panacea. Every employee in mill or factory, in railway or steamship service, was soon to become an owner, with a possible future seat on the board.

wealth - All praise be to God Who hath adorned the world with an ornament, and arrayed it with a vesture, of which it can be despoiled by no earthly power, however mighty its battalions, however vast its wealth, however profound its influence. Say: the essence of all power is God's, the highest and the last End of all creation. The source of all majesty is God's, the Object of the adoration of all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth. Such forces as have their origin in this world of dust are, by their very nature, unworthy of consideration. (Bahá'u'lláh, GL, p. 341)

Wealth - is most commendable, provided the entire population is wealthy. If, however, a few have inordinate riches while the rest are impoverished, and no fruit or benefit accrues from that wealth, then it is only a liability to its possessor. If, on the other hand, it is expended for the promotion of knowledge, the founding of elementary and other schools, the encouragement of art and industry, the training of orphans and the poor--in brief, if it is dedicated to the welfare of society--its possessor will stand out before God and man as the most excellent of all who live on earth and will be accounted as one of the people of paradise. (`Abdu'l-Baha, Secret Divine Civilization, p. 24-25)

...let your faces be more radiant with hope and heavenly determination to serve the Cause of God, to spread the pure fragrances of the divine rose garden of unity, to awaken spiritual susceptibilities in the hearts of mankind, to kindle anew the spirit of humanity with divine fires and to reflect the glory of heaven to this gloomy world of materialism. When you possess these divine susceptibilities, you will be able to awaken and develop them in others. We cannot give of our wealth to the poor unless we possess it. How can the poor give to the poor? How can the soul that is deprived of the heavenly bounties develop in other souls capacity to receive those bounties? (`Abdu'l-Bahá, PUP, p. 7)

...our weakness is an evidence that there is might; our ignorance proves the reality of knowledge; our need is an indication of supply and wealth. Were it not for wealth, this need would not exist; were it not for knowledge, ignorance would be unknown; were it not for power, there would be no impotence. In other words, demand and supply is the law, and undoubtedly all virtues have a center and source. That source is God, from Whom all these bounties emanate. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, PUP, p. 83)

4. Though all these over-sanguine expectations have not been realized through the laws establishing corporations, thus encouraging the massing of the innumerable small savings of the public in general, yet few new forms have been productive of so much benefit to the thrifty and aspiring people with small savings, who are the salt of the working millions and of the country, as the corporate idea.

expectations - The principle of collective trusteeship creates also the right of every person to expect that those cultural conditions essential to his or her identity enjoy the protection of national and international law. Much like the role played by the gene pool in the biological life of humankind and its environment, the immense wealth of cultural diversity achieved over thousands of years is vital to the social and economic development of a human race experiencing its collective coming-of-age. It represents a heritage that must be permitted to bear its fruit in a global civilization. On the one hand, cultural expressions need to be protected from suffocation by the materialistic influences currently holding sway. On the other, cultures must be enabled to interact with one another in ever-changing patterns of civilization, free of manipulation for partisan political ends.

"The light of men", Baha'u'llah says, "is Justice. Quench it not with the contrary winds of oppression and tyranny. The purpose of justice is the appearance of unity among men. The ocean of divine wisdom surgeth within this exalted word, while the books of the world cannot contain its inner significance." (Prosperity of Humankind, p. 6-7)

5. Another highly important step forward in this domain resulted from the authorization of limited partnerships, by which the undoubted advantages of individual over corporate management could be secured without danger of ruin to the members, whose liability is limited to the amount of the capital stock of the partnership. In the great corporation the shares are generally bought and sold upon the

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stock exchange, and the real owners are unknown. All depends upon salaried officials, who may or may not have a dollar in the enterprise. In the limited partnership, on the contrary, only shareholders can be members; the shares are not sold to outsiders, and thus is insured the eye of the master over all. With proper, but absolutely necessary, provisions, it is possible, under this system, to create owners from among exceptional but poor employees, from whom no capital is required, the partnership agreeing to permit the profits to pay for the interest given, the capitalistic owners reserving the right to discontinue the partnership by a two-thirds vote, or a three-fourths majority vote, should the new partner not prove desirable. By this plan it is possible for the rise of the poor but able employee, thus neutralizing, to some extent, the acknowledged difficulty of men rising to ownership in our day, because of the enormous amount of capital required for successful operations under present, and probably enduring, conditions. The day of small concerns within the means of many able men seems to be over, never to return. The rise to partnership in vast concerns must come chiefly through such means as these permitted by the laws of limited partnership.

capitalistic - "Regarding your questions concerning the Baha'i attitude on various economic problems, such as the problem of ownership, control and distribution of capital, and of other means of production, the problem of trusts and monopolies, and such economic experiments as social cooperatives; the Teachings of Baha'u'llah and Abdu'l-Baha do not provide specific and detailed solutions to all such economic questions which mostly pertain to the domain of technical economics, and as such do not concern directly the Cause. True, there are certain guiding principles in Baha'i Sacred Writings on the subject of economics, but these do by no means cover the whole field of theoretical and applied economics, and are mostly intended to guide further Baha'i economic writers and technicians to evolve an economic system which would function in full conformity with the spirit and the exact provisions of the Cause on this and similar subjects. The International House of Justice will have, in consultation with economic experts, to assist in the formulation and evolution of the Baha'i economic system of the future. One thing, however, is certain, that the Cause neither accepts the theories of the Capitalistic economics in full, nor can it agree with the Marxists and Communists in their repudiation of the principle of private ownership and of the vital sacred rights of the individual." (Lights of Guidance, p 549-550 From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, June 10, 1930: Ibid.)

6. To-day we hear little of the joint-stock corporation, which has settled into its proper sphere and escapes notice. It was succeeded by the "syndicate," a combination of corporations which pulled together for a time, and expected to destroy destructive competition. The word has already almost passed out of use, and now the syndicate has given place to the trust.

competition - ...Political love also is much bound up with hatred of one party for another; this love is very limited and uncertain. The love of community of interest in service is likewise fluctuating; frequently competitions arise, which lead to jealousy, and at length hatred replaces love. A few years ago, Turkey and Italy had a friendly political understanding; now they are at war! All these ties of love are imperfect. It is clear that limited material ties are insufficient to adequately express the universal love. The great unselfish love for humanity is bounded by none of these imperfect, semi-selfish bonds; this is the one perfect love, possible to all mankind, and can only be achieved by the power of the Divine Spirit. No worldly power can accomplish the universal love.

Let all be united in this Divine power of love! Let all strive to grow in the light of the Sun of Truth, and reflecting this luminous love on all men, may their hearts become so united that they may dwell evermore in the radiance of the limitless love. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, PT, p. 36-37)

7. We see in all these efforts of men the desire to furnish opportunities to mass capital, to concentrate the small savings of the many and to direct them to one end. The conditions of human society create for this an imperious demand; the concentration of capital is a necessity for meeting the demands of our day, and as such should not be looked at askance, but be encouraged. There is nothing detrimental

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to human society in it, but much that is, or is bound soon to become, beneficial. It is an evolution from the heterogeneous to the homogeneous,

    (2) Spencer’s Law of Evolution, enunciated in Part 2 of First Principles (1862), reads: "an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion, during which the matter passes from an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to a definite coherent heterogeneity." Carnegie, not notably exact in quotation, has here literally reversed the order of "development" commentary on his subservience to or understanding of the English thinker.

and is clearly another step in the upward path of development.

capital - It is quite otherwise with the human species, which persists in the greatest error, and in absolute iniquity. Consider an individual who has amassed treasures by colonizing a country for his profit: he has obtained an incomparable fortune and has secured profits and incomes which flow like a river, while a hundred thousand unfortunate people, weak and powerless, are in need of a mouthful of bread. There is neither equality nor benevolence. So you see that general peace and joy are destroyed, and the welfare of humanity is negated to such an extent as to make fruitless the lives of many. For fortune, honors, commerce, industry are in the hands of some industrialists, while other people are submitted to quite a series of difficulties and to limitless troubles: they have neither advantages, nor profits, nor comforts, nor peace.

Then rules and laws should be established to regulate the excessive fortunes of certain private individuals and meet the needs of millions of the poor masses; thus a certain moderation would be obtained. However, absolute equality is just as impossible, for absolute equality in fortunes, honors, commerce, agriculture, industry would end in disorderliness, in chaos, in disorganization of the means of existence, and in universal disappointment: the order of the community would be quite destroyed. Thus difficulties will also arise when unjustified equality is imposed. It is, therefore, preferable for moderation to be established by means of laws and regulations to hinder the constitution of the excessive fortunes of certain individuals, and to protect the essential needs of the masses. For instance, the manufacturers and the industrialists heap up a treasure each day, and the poor artisans do not gain their daily sustenance: that is the height of iniquity, and no just man can accept it. Therefore, laws and regulations should be established which would permit the workmen to receive from the factory owner their wages and a share in the fourth or the fifth part of the profits, according to the capacity of the factory; or in some other way the body of workmen and the manufacturers should share equitably the profits and advantages. Indeed, the capital and management come from the owner of the factory, and the work and labor, from the body of the workmen. Either the workmen should receive wages which assure them an adequate support and, when they cease work, becoming feeble or helpless, they should have sufficient benefits from the income of the industry; or the wages should be high enough to satisfy the workmen with the amount they receive so that they may themselves be able to put a little aside for days of want and helplessness.

When matters will be thus fixed, the owner of the factory will no longer put aside daily a treasure which he has absolutely no need of (for, if the fortune is disproportionate, the capitalist succumbs under a formidable burden and gets into the greatest difficulties and troubles; the administration of an excessive fortune is very difficult and exhausts man's natural strength). And the workmen and artisans will no longer be in the greatest misery and want; they will no longer be submitted to the worst privations at the end of their life. It is, then, clear and evident that the repartition of excessive fortunes among a small number of individuals, while the masses are in need, is an iniquity and an injustice. In the same way, absolute equality would be an obstacle to life, to welfare, to order and to the peace of humanity. In such a question moderation is preferable. It lies in the capitalists' being moderate in the acquisition of their profits, and in their having a consideration for the welfare of the poor and needy--that is to say, that the workmen and artisans receive a fixed and established daily wage-- and have a share in the general profits of the factory.

It would be well, with regard to the common rights of manufacturers, workmen and artisans, that laws be established, giving moderate profits to manufacturers, and to workmen the necessary means of existence and security for the future. Thus when they become feeble and cease working, get old and helpless, or leave behind children under age, they and their children will not be annihilated by excess of poverty. And it is from the income of the factory itself, to which they have a right, that they will derive a share, however small, toward their livelihood.

In the same way, the workmen should no longer make excessive claims and revolt, nor demand beyond their rights; they should no longer go out on strike; they should be obedient and submissive and not ask for exorbitant wages. But the mutual and reasonable rights of both associated parties will be legally fixed and established according to custom by just and impartial laws. In case one of the two parties should transgress, the court of justice should condemn the transgressor, and the executive branch should enforce the verdict; thus order will be reestablished, and the difficulties, settled. The interference of courts of justice and of the government in difficulties pending between manufacturers and workmen is legal, for the reason that current affairs between workmen and manufacturers cannot be compared with ordinary affairs between private persons, which do not concern the public, and with which the government should not occupy itself. In reality, although they appear to be private matters, these difficulties between the two parties produce a detriment to the public; for commerce, industry, agriculture and the general affairs of the country are all intimately linked together. If one of these suffers an abuse, the detriment affects the mass. Thus the difficulties between workmen and manufacturers become a cause of general detriment. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, SAQ, p. 273-276)

homogeneity - What is true of the life of the individual has its parallels in human society. The human species is an organic whole, the leading edge of the evolutionary process. That human consciousness necessarily operates through an infinite diversity of individual minds and motivations detracts in no way from its essential unity. Indeed, it is precisely an inhering diversity that distinguishes unity from homogeneity or uniformity. What the peoples of the world are today experiencing, Bahá'u'lláh said, is their collective coming- of-age, and it is through this emerging maturity of the race that the principle of unity in diversity will find full expression. From its earliest beginnings in the consolidation of family life, the process of social organization has successively moved from the simple structures of clan and tribe, through multitudinous forms of urban society, to the eventual emergence of the nation-state, each stage opening up a wealth of new opportunities for the exercise of human capacity. (Prosperity of Humankind, p. 4)

8. Abreast of this necessity for massing the wealth of the many in even larger and larger sums for huge enterprises, another law is seen in operation in the invariable tendency from the beginning till now to lower the cost of all articles produced by man. Through the operation of this law the home of the laboring man of our day boasts luxuries which even in the palaces of monarchs as recent as Queen Elizabeth were unknown. It is a trite saying that the comforts of to-day were the luxuries of yesterday, and conveys only a faint impression of the contrast, until one walks through the castles and palaces of older countries, and learns that two or three centuries ago these had for carpets only rushes, small open spaces for windows, glass being little known, and were without gas or water-supply, or any of what we consider to-day the conveniences of life. As for those chief treasures of life, books, there is scarcely a working-man's family which has not at its command, without money and without price, access to libraries to which the palace was recently a stranger.

Luxuries - The Captivity of Man - `Abdu'l-Bahá said:--"Luxuries cut off the freedom of communication. One who is imprisoned by desires is always unhappy; the children of the Kingdom have unchained themselves from their desires. Break all fetters and seek for spiritual joy and enlightenment; then, though you walk on this earth, you will perceive yourselves to be within the divine horizon. To man alone is this possible. When we look about us we see every other creature captive to his environment.

"The bird is a captive in the air and the fish a captive in the sea. Man alone stands apart and says to the elements, I will make you my servants! I can govern you! He takes electricity, and through his ingenuity imprisons it and makes of it a wonderful power for lighting, and a means of communication to a distance of thousands of miles. But man himself may become a captive to the things he has invented. His true second birth occurs when he is freed from all material things: for he only is free who is not a captive to his desires. He has then as Jesus has said, become captive to the Holy Spirit." (`Abdu'l-Bahá in London, p. 87-88)

9. If there be in human history one truth clearer and more indisputable than another, it is that the cheapening of articles, whether of luxury or of necessity or of those classed as artistic, insures their more general distribution, and is one of the most potent factors in refining and lifting a people, and in adding to its happiness. In no period of human activity has this great agency been so potent or so widespread as in our own. Now, the cheapening of all these

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good things, whether it be in the metals, in textiles, or in food, or especially in books and prints, is rendered possible only through the operation of the law, which may be stated thus: cheapness is in proportion to the scale of production. To make ten tons of steel a day would cost many times as much per ton as to make one hundred tons; to make one hundred tons would cost double as much per ton as a thousand; and to make one thousand tons per day would cost greatly more than to make ten thousand tons. Thus, the larger the scale of operation the cheaper the product. The huge steamship of twenty thousand tons burden carries its ton of freight at less cost, it is stated, than the first steamships carried a pound. It is, fortunately, impossible for man to impede, much less to change, this great and beneficent law, from which row most of his comforts and luxuries, and also most of the best and most improving forces in his life.

Baha'i Comment

10. In an age noted for its inventions, we see the same law running through these. Inventions facilitate big Operations, and in most instances require to be worked upon a great scale. Indeed, as a rule, the great invention which is beneficent in its operation would be useless unless operated to supply a thousand people where ten were supplied before. Every agency in our day labors to scatter the good things of life, both for mind and body, among the toiling millions. Everywhere we look we see the inexorable law ever producing bigger and bigger things. One of the most notable illustrations of this is seen in the railway freight-car. When the writer entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad from seven to eight tons were carried upon eight wheels; to-day they carry fifty tons. The locomotive has quadrupled in power. The steamship to-day is ten times bigger, the blast-furnace has seven times more capacity, and the tendency everywhere is still to increase. The contrast between the hand printing-press of old and the elaborate newspaper printing-machine of to-day is even more marked.

Baha'i Comment

11. We conclude that this overpowering, irresistible tendency

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toward aggregation of capital and increase of size in every branch of product cannot be arrested or even greatly impeded, and that, instead of attempting to restrict either, we should hail every increase as something gained, not for the few rich, but for the millions of poor, seeing that the law is salutary, working for good and not for evil. Every enlargement is an improvement, step by step, upon what has preceded. It makes for higher civilization, for the enrichment of human life, not for one, but for all classes of men. It tends to bring to the laborer's cottage the luxuries hitherto enjoyed only by the rich, to remove from the most squalid homes much of their squalor, and to foster the growth of human happiness relatively more in the workman's home than in the millionaire's palace. It does not tend to make the rich poorer, but it does tend to make the poor richer in the possession of better things, and greatly lessens the wide and deplorable gulf between the rich and the poor. Superficial politicians may, for a time, deceive the uninformed, but more and more will all this be clearly seen by those who are now led to regard aggregations as injurious.

aggregation - ...All things are involved in all things. For every single phenomenon has enjoyed the postulates of God, and in every form of these infinite electrons it has had its characteristics of perfection.

Thus this flower once upon a time was of the soil. The animal eats the flower or its fruit, and it thereby ascends to the animal kingdom. Man eats the meat of the animal, and there you have its ascent into the human kingdom, because all phenomena are divided into that which eats and that which is eaten. Therefore, every primordial atom of these atoms, singly and indivisible, has had its coursings throughout all the sentient creation, going constantly into the aggregation of the various elements. Hence do you have the conservation of energy and the infinity of phenomena, the indestructibility of phenomena, changeless and immutable, because life cannot suffer annihilation but only change.

The apparent annihilation is this: that the form, the outward image, goes through all these changes and transformations. Let us again take the example of this flower. The flower is indestructible. The only thing that we can see, this outer form, is indeed destroyed, but the elements, the indivisible elements which have gone into the composition of this flower are eternal and changeless. Therefore the realities of all phenomena are immutable. Extinction or mortality is nothing but the transformation of pictures and images, so to speak-- the reality back of these images is eternal. And every reality of the realities is one of the bounties of God. (Foundations of World Unity, p. 52)

salutary - You cannot give up a salutary law just because on rare occasions the innocent may be punished. (Bahá'u'lláh, Kitáb-i-Aqdás, p. 204)

superficial - Those who are uninformed of the world of reality, who do not comprehend existing things, who are without perception of the inner truth of creation, who do not penetrate the real mysteries of material and spiritual phenomena and who possess only a superficial idea of universal life and being are but embodiments of pure ignorance. They believe only that which they have heard from their fathers and ancestors. Of themselves they have no hearing, no sight, no reason, no intellect; they rely solely upon tradition. Such persons imagine that the dominion of God is an accidental dominion or kingdom.

For instance they believe that this world of existence was created six or seven thousand years ago; as if God did not reign before that time and had no creation before that period. They think that divinity is accidental, for to them divinity is dependent upon existing things whereas in reality as long as there has been a God there has been a creation. As long as there has been light, there have been recipients of that light, for light cannot become manifest unless those things which perceive and appreciate it exist. The world of divinity presupposescreation, presupposes recipients of bounty, presupposes the existence of worlds. No divinity can be conceived as separate from creation, for otherwise it would be like imagining an empire without a people. A king must needs have a kingdom, must needs have an army and subjects. Is it possible to be a king and have no country, no army, no subjects? This is an absurdity. If we say that there was a time when there was no country, no army and no subjects, how then could there have been a king and ruler? For these things are essential to a king. (Foundations of World Unity, p. 107)

superficial - "People today indeed do tend to be very superficial in their thinking, and it would seem as if the educational systems in use are sorely lacking in ability to produce a mature mind in a person who has reached supposedly adult life! All the outside influences that surround the individual seem to have an intensely distracting effect, and it is a hard job to get the average person to do any deep thinking or even a little meditation on the problems facing him and the world at large. Over and over again Baha'u'llah cried out against the heedlessness of humanity, and warns of the fate such an attitude must lead to. Did we not know what God plans to do, and will do, with the world in the future, we should certainly be as hopeless as many of the best thinkers of our generation have become." (From a letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer, September 22, 1948) Lights of Guidance, page 211-212)

superficial - AMERICA PASSING THROUGH CRISIS - Moreover, the country of which it forms a part is passing through a crisis which, in its spiritual, moral, social and political aspects, is of extreme seriousness-- a seriousness which to a superficial observer is liable to be dangerously underestimated.

The steady and alarming deterioration in the standard of morality as exemplified by the appalling increase of crime, by political corruption in ever widening and ever higher circles, by the loosening of the sacred ties of marriage, by the inordinate craving for pleasure and diversion, and by the marked and progressive slackening of parental control, is no doubt the most arresting and distressing aspect of the decline that has set in, and can be clearly perceived, in the fortunes of the entire nation.

Parallel with this, and pervading all departments of life--an evil which the nation, and indeed all those within the capitalist system, though to a lesser degree, share with that state and its satellites regarded as the sworn enemies of that system--is the crass materialism, which lays excessive and ever-increasing emphasis on material well-being, forgetful of those things of the spirit on which alone a sure and stable foundation can be laid for human society. ... (Citadel of Faith, p. 124-125)

12. In all great movements, even of the highest value, there is cause for criticism, and new dangers arising from new conditions, which must be guarded against. There is no nugget free from more or less impurity, and no good cause without its fringe of scoria. The sun itself has spots, but, as has been wisely said, these are rendered visible only by the light itself sends forth.

criticism - 155 Motive, manner, mode, become relevant; but there is also the matter of love: love for one's fellows, love for one's community, love for one's institutions. The responsibility resting on the individual to conduct himself in such away as to ensure the stability of society takes on elemental importance in this context. For vital as it is to the progress of society, criticism is a two-edged sword: it is all too often the harbinger of conflict and contention. (Individual Rights and Freedoms)
13. The benefits, therefore, which have come to the world through this law of aggregation and increase take several forms, to some of which objection is made.

Baha'i Comment

14. One form of aggregation is the growth of establishments constantly extending their field of operations, the special form which has been most criticized being the department store. We look back to the time when one petty establishment sold one class of articles. The subdivision of labor is seen in its fullest development throughout the Eastern world,

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where many servants are required, each restricted to doing one part of many operations required to produce one whole. Traces of this system still linger among us. In dealing with department stores the first question is, Do they provide articles at less cost for the masses? Upon cheapness, indeed, depends the wider distribution of desirable articles among the people, the enjoyment of which is greatly to be desired as inevitably carrying with it elevation to a higher stage of civilization. Increased comfort means increased refinement, and this means a higher standard of life. No one questions the fact that these great stores do furnish more value for the money than it was possible for small separate selling agencies to do. The increased scale of operations all under one management insures much cheaper distribution. That they are so generally patronized is the best proof that they are beneficial, and, what should not be lost sight of, they are relatively more advantageous for the general public than for the few rich. In like manner it is the masses of the people, not the few, who are most benefited by the growth of huge and all-embracing establishments in every line of production and distribution. It is inevitable that the introduction of a new system should disturb and finally overthrow the older and less desirable system.

Baha'i Comment

15. The chief complaint made against the department stores is that, while under the old system of small separate establishments there were secured as valuable citizens to the State a hundred independent owners, the department store may have only five. In the writer's opinion, this is a mistake, as experience already demonstrates that the great and successful establishment is dependent upon numerous active members participating directly in the results. It may be accepted as a law that the store which interests the greatest number of assistants, other things being equal, will prove the most successful, and it is a matter of common knowledge even to-day that in these vast establishments it is already the rule for all those in charge of the numerous departments

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to be directly interested in the profits. In other words, the small, petty master in his little store has given place to the bigger, much more important manager of a department, those revenues generally exceed those of the petty owner he has supplanted. Nor is this all: the field for the display of exceptional ability is much wider than it could possibly be in the smaller establishment, and will as often win partnership in one of these establishments, or at least an equivalent of partnership, as the owner of the small store achieved success. This bigger system grows bigger men, and it is by the big men that the standard of the race is raised. The race of shopkeepers is bound to be improved, and to become not only better business men, and better men in themselves, but more valuable citizens for the State. Dealing with petty affairs tends to make small men; dealing with larger affairs broadens and strengthens character.

character - For every thing, however, God has created a sign and symbol, and established standards and tests by which it may be known. The spiritually learned must be characterized by both inward and outward perfections; they must possess a good character, an enlightened nature, a pure intent, as well as intellectual power, brilliance and discernment, intuition, discretion and foresight, temperance, reverence, and a heartfelt fear of God. For an unlit candle, however great in diameter and tall, is no better than a barren palm tree or a pile of dead wood. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, SDC, p. 33-34)

Perhaps someone will say that, since the capacity and worthiness of men differ, therefore, the difference of capacity certainly causes the difference of characters.

But this is not so, for capacity is of two kinds: natural capacity and acquired capacity. The first, which is the creation of God, is purely good--in the creation of God there is no evil; but the acquired capacity has become the cause of the appearance of evil. For example, God has created all men in such a manner and has given them such a constitution and such capacities that they are benefited by sugar and honey and harmed and destroyed by poison. This nature and constitution is innate, and God has given it equally to all mankind. But man begins little by little to accustom himself to poison by taking a small quantity each day, and gradually increasing it, until he reaches such a point that he cannot live without a gram of opium every day. The natural capacities are thus completely perverted. Observe how much the natural capacity and constitution can be changed, until by different habits and training they become entirely perverted. One does not criticize vicious people because of their innate capacities and nature, but rather for their acquired capacities and nature. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, SAQ, p. 215)

THE CAUSES OF THE DIFFERENCES IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN
Question.--How many kinds of character has man, and what is the cause of the differences and varieties in men?

Answer.--He has the innate character, the inherited character, and the acquired character which is gained by education.

With regard to the innate character, although the divine creation is purely good, yet the varieties of natural qualities in man come from the difference of degree; all are excellent, but they are more or less so, according to the degree. So all mankind possess intelligence and capacities, but the intelligence, the capacity and the worthiness of men differ. This is evident.

For example, take a number of children of one family, of one place, of one school, instructed by one teacher, reared on the same food, in the same climate, with the same clothing, and studying the same lessons--it is certain that among these children some will be clever in the sciences, some will be of average ability, and some dull. Hence it is clear that in the original nature there exists a difference of degree and varieties of worthiness and capacity. This difference does not imply good or evil but is simply a difference of degree. One has the highest degree, another the medium degree, and another the lowest degree. So man exists; the animal, the plant and the mineral exist also--but the degrees of these four existences vary. What a difference between the existence of man and of the animal! Yet both are existences. It is evident that in existence there are differences of degrees. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, SAQ, p. 212-213)

16. We have taken department stores as the form most under criticism, but what we have said here may be taken as said of all other branches of business, that the larger the scale upon which it can be successfully conducted the better it is for the race as a whole, and in greater degree better for the masses of the race than for the few.

Baha'i Comment

17. We come now to another phase of aggregation: the consolidation of various works scattered in different parts of the country into one solid company. These consolidations are now classed as trusts.

Baha'i Comment

18. As far as the consolidation of various plants engaged in one branch of manufacture is concerned, this is only obeying the great law of aggregation, which, we have seen, is beneficial, although the real object of the consolidators may, in some cases, have been the belief that through these consolidations ruinous competition might be ended. Color is given to this belief because it is obvious that the cheapening of product cannot result to so great an extent by combining works in scattered places as when one establishment enlarges itself. On the other hand, something is to be allowed

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for the claim that each separate work may be utilized to supply the wants of a tributary region, thus saving cost of transportation. The one solid enlarged establishment will, however, probably be able to manufacture its surplus not needed in the region tributary to it at a cost so much less than is possible at the small scattered establishments as to enable it to pay the freight upon what it desires to sell beyond its natural territory. In so far as consolidation of scattered works is intended to save cost of transportation, and thus to produce more cheaply, the consolidation is to be hailed as beneficial for the country; for the foundation upon which we rest: is that cheapness of articles leads to their wider distribution among the masses, and is a gain when attained. Reduced cost of production, under the free play of competition, insures reduced prices to the consumer.

Baha'i Comment

19. The people are aroused against trusts because they are said to aim at securing monopolies in the manufacture and distribution of their products; but the whole question is, Have they succeeded, or can they succeed, in monopolizing products? Let us consider. That the manufacturer of a patented article can maintain a monopoly goes without saying. Our laws expressly give him a monopoly. That it has been wise for the State to give an inventor this for a time will not be seriously questioned. So beneficial has it proved that the nations of the world are one after the other following our patent laws. Our chief industrial rival, Great Britain, has done so as far as possible, and the chairman of the British Patent Commission expressed to me the regret that it was found impracticable, at present, to go further in the same direction.

monopoly - ... If fair-minded and intelligent men of knowledge should ponder and reflect upon the judicious laws of the Lord of mankind, they will no doubt bear witness to the perfection of Divine Providence in the laws thus instituted. For instance, these three firm and irrefutable ordinances, namely, first: the question of inheritance by which monopoly of wealth will be removed and the question of socialism solved; second: the question of universal peace and international agreements regarding disarmament and conserving expenditure now devoted to implements of war; third: the question of all being commanded to acquire a profession, art or trade whereby they May earn a living, thus lightening the burden of expense to those upon whom it falls, such as farmers, laborers, et al. This expense is created by the idlers and unemployed members of the human family.

These fair-minded and intelligent men will also testify that the readjustment of the world and the salvation of mankind from great dangers is conditioned upon following the commands of this Most Great Manifestation. Thus will they utter the blessed words: "Blessed is God, the Possessor of the Dominion and the Kingdom!" (The Brilliant Proof, p. 68-69)

20. There are only two conditions other than patents which render it possible to maintain a monopoly. These are when the parties absolutely control the raw material out of which the article is produced, or control territory into which rivals can enter only with extreme difficulty. Such is virtually the case with the Standard Oil Company, and as long as it can

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maintain a monopoly of raw materials it goes without saying that it can maintain a monopoly in the product. This is a fact that the public must recognize, but what legislation can do to prevent it is difficult to say. Citizens of the United States have a right to buy anything they choose. This right could scarcely be restricted, nor, upon the whole, would it seem wise to restrict it, since that of the Standard Oil is the only case in which monopoly of an article has been secured. It has been rendered possible only by exceptional ability and in circumstances not likely ever to occur again. The price of its continued success is a line of such able men as its originators. Its second source of strength lies in the fact that through its extensive operations it has been enabled to reduce the price of its product to the consumer. it is a unique organization, for there is nothing like it in the world, and therefore it is not to be classed with the ordinary trusts, which are numerous and are constantly increasing.

legislation - The Baha'i Cause covers all economic and social questions under the heading and ruling of its laws. The essence of the Baha'i spirit is that, in order to establish a better social order and economic condition, there must be allegiance to the laws and principles of government. Under the laws which are to govern the world, the socialists may justly demand human rights but without resort to force and violence. The governments will enact these laws, establishing just legislation and economics in order that all humanity may enjoy a full measure of welfare and privilege; but this will always be according to legal protection and procedure. Without legislative administration, rights and demands fail, and the welfare of the commonwealth cannot be realized. Today the method of demand is the strike and resort to force, which is manifestly wrong and destructive of human foundations. Rightful privilege and demand must be set forth in laws and regulations.

While thousands are considering these questions, we have more essential purposes. The fundamentals of the whole economic condition are divine in nature and are associated with the world of the heart and spirit. This is fully explained in the Baha'i teaching, and without knowledge of its principles no improvement in the economic state can be realized. The Baha'is will bring about this improvement and betterment but not through sedition and appeal to physical force--not through warfare, but welfare. Hearts must be so cemented together, love must become so dominant that the rich shall most willingly extend assistance to the poor and take steps to establish these economic adjustments permanently. If it is accomplished in this way, it will be most praiseworthy because then it will be for the sake of God and in the pathway of His service. For example, it will be as if the rich inhabitants of a city should say, "It is neither just nor lawful that we should possess great wealth while there is abject poverty in this community," and then willingly give their wealth to the poor, retaining only as much as will enable them to live comfortably. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, Promulgation Universal Peace, p. 238- 239)

21. Within the last few months a wholly new and enterprising development of the trust idea has appeared in the railway world - one which reflects much credit upon the brain which conceived it. This is the purchase by the leading trunk-lines of large amounts of the stock of their less prominent competitors. We now see a vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railway Company sitting on the board of the Baltimore and Ohio. The possible outcome of this movement, if pursued, assumes portentous proportions, far surpassing in their effect any previous phase of the trust, and may lead to an extension of the powers of the Interstate Commission, and perhaps to other legislation at present unthought of. The subject is too far-reaching for more than mere mention in this paper. The country must see its future development, which will be waited with deep concern by the thoughtful student of economic problems.

Trusts - The question of socialization is very important. It will not be solved by strikes for wages. All the governments of the world must be united and organize an assembly the members of which should be elected from the parliaments and the nobles of the nations. These must plan with utmost wisdom and power so that neither the capitalist suffer from enormous losses nor the laborers become needy. In the utmost moderation they should make the law; then announce to the public that the rights of the working people are to be strongly preserved. Also the rights of the capitalists are to be protected. When such a general plan is adopted by the will of both sides, should a strike occur, all the governments of the world collectively should resist it. Otherwise, the labor problem will lead to much destruction, especially in Europe. Terrible things will take place.

For instance, the owners of properties, mines and factories should share their incomes with their employees and give a fairly certain percentage of their products to their workingmen in order that the employees may receive, beside their wages, some of the general income of the factory so that the employee may strive with his soul in the work. No more trusts will remain in the future. The question of the trusts will be wiped away entirely. Also, every factory that has ten thousand shares will give two thousand shares of these ten thousand to its employees and will write the shares in their names, so that they may have them, and the rest will belong to the capitalists. Then at the end of the month or year whatever they may earn after the expenses and wages are paid, according to the number of shares, should be divided among both. In reality, so far great injustice has befallen the common people. Laws must be made because it is impossible for the laborers to be satisfied with the present system. They will strike every month and every year. Finally, the capitalists will lose. In ancient times a strike occurred among the Turkish soldiers. They said to the government: "Our wages are very small and they should be increased." The government was forced to give them their demands. Shortly afterwards they struck again. Finally all the incomes went to the pockets of the soldiers to the extent that they killed the king, saying: "Why didst thou not increase the income so that we might have received more?"

It is impossible for a country to live properly without laws. To solve this problem rigorous laws must be made, so that all the governments of the world will be the protectors thereof. (`Abdu'l-Bahá, Foundations of World Unity, p. 43-44)

22. The genesis of trusts is as follows: Manufacturers of most staple articles (especially of iron and steel) are subject to long periods of serious depression, succeeded by short inter-

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vals of high profits. Because during depression no increase is made in capacity, and the world's population and wants are constantly growing, one morning it is discovered that demand has overtaken and outrun supply. But the production of an increased supply is no easy matter. It usually means, beginning at the beginning, obtaining the raw materials from mine or soil, passing these through various processes for which the necessary machinery and facilities are wanting, and it is a year or eighteen months, or even two years, before the supply of most articles can be materially increased. Demand becomes imperious and unsatisfied, and prices bound upward. Many new men are induced to build new works. The extensions of the old works supply all demands, and even a shade beyond; then comes the collapse. It is during one of these long periods of depression, when many of the manufacturers are on the verge of bankruptcy, that there arises in the heart a hope, soon crystallized into a belief, that a new way has been found to avoid the natural consequences of the unchanging economic laws. It is soon felt that savage competition should cease between those enduring a common affliction, who should be brother manufacturers, and that the lion and the lamb should lie down together. They forget, in the hour of their misery, that the moralist has expressed the fear lest the one may be found inside the other. First, all kinds of understandings and fair promises are made - alas! only to be broken; and finally the promoter makes his appearance, and our unfortunate manufacturers fall an easy prey. Enormous sums are offered for antiquated plants which may not have been able to do more than pay their way for years. These are tied together, and the new industrial makes its appearance as a trust, under the delusion that if a dozen or twenty invalids be tied together vitality will be infused thereby into the mass. This is not true of all that are classed as trusts; there are exceptions; I speak only generally.

Baha'i Comment

23. Should these combinations be made upon the eve of a

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period of activity, as was the case recently, then there is a triumphant vindication of the new nostrum, the industrial world has found its panacea for all ills, and there is never to be ruinous competition again. The public is alarmed; it hears for a time of the advance of prices in the products of these gigantic concerns which temporarily control the market, and demands legislation against them. Generally speaking, as in the present instance, the advance in prices would have taken place even if no trusts existed, being caused by increased demand. The very name of trust stinks in our nostrils. We believe the public to be needlessly alarmed upon the subject, for the following reasons:

Baha'i Comment

24. Few trusts have a monopoly through patents or through the supply of raw material or of territory, and what happens is this: For a short time competition is hindered, but rarely, if ever, completely stifled. The profits of the trusts are high, and capital, ever watchful for an opportunity to make unusual gains, seeks its level by a law of its being, and needs only the opportunity to engage in this highly profitable manufacture. A relative of one of the principal officials or one of the chiefs of a department in the trust, knowing its great profits, gets some friend with capital to build new works in cooperation with him, and the result is that we soon see springing up over the country rival works, each of which has the great giant trust more or less at its mercy. A threat to reduce prices, and the trust, to which this may mean millions of dollars of loss, will sooner or later come to an agreement with the little David who threatens to attack the Goliath, and the rival concern is arranged with or purchased. This only whets the appetite of others who see the success of the first innovator, and other works soon spring up. No sooner has the trust purchased one threatened rival than two appear, and the end is disaster. The people may rest assured that neither in one article nor in another is it possible for any trust to exact exorbitant profits without thereby speedily undermining its own foundations. It is not

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long since trusts first made their appearance, and already many have disappeared. Many still existing are being assailed, the names of which will readily occur to our readers. Only a few survive to-day, and none have secured the coveted monopoly. Most of the metals and many of the staple articles have been formed into trusts, which, although yet living, are rapidly being attacked to their final destruction. The press used to tell every morning of the organization of some trust or other, and even to-day we still hear of proposed additions to the list of these attempted gigantic monopolies, which enjoy an ephemeral existence. Upon most of them can already be written the appropriate epitaph:

    It was so soon to be done for,
    I wonder what I was begun for."

      (3) The first line should read: "It is so soon that I am done for."
        An Epitaph "For a Child Aged Three Weeks,"
        Cheltenham Churchyard.

Baha'i Comment

25. Every attempt to monopolize the manufacture of any staple article carries within its bosom the seeds of failure. Long before we could legislate with much effect against trusts there would be no necessity for legislation. The past proves this, and the future is to confirm it. There should be nothing but encouragement for these vast aggregations of capital for the manufacture of staple articles. As for the result being an increase of price to the consumer beyond a brief period, there need be no fear. On the contrary, the inevitable result of these aggregations is, finally and permanently, to give to the consumer cheaper articles that would have been otherwise possible to obtain; for capital is stimulated by the high profits of the trust, for a season, to embark against it. The result is very soon a capacity of production beyond the wants of the consumer, and as the new works erected are of the most improved pattern, and capable of producing cheaper than the old works, the vulnerable trusts are compelled to buy and capitalize at two or three times their cost. There is thus no danger ahead to the community from trusts, nor any cause for fear.

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Baha'i Comment

26. The great natural laws, being the outgrowth of human nature and human needs, keep on their irresistible course. Competition in all departments of human activity is not to be suppressed. The individual manufacturer who is tempted into the unusually profitable business of the trust will take care of the monopoly question and prevent injury to the nation. The trust, so far as aggregation and enlargement go, is one day to be recognized as a grand step toward cheaper products for the people than could have been obtained by any other mode than the aggregation of capital and establishments. Already the ghosts of numerous departed trusts which aimed at monopolies have marched across the stage of human affairs, each pointing to its fatal wound, inflicted by that great corrective, competition. Like the ghosts of Macbeth's victims, the line promises to stretch longer and longer, and also like those phantoms of the brain, they "come like shadows, so depart."

    The earth hath bubbles as the water hath,
    And these are of them.

      (4) Macbeth, Act I, scene 3, line 79.

The masses of the people, the toiling millions, are soon to find in this great law of aggregation of capital and of factories another of those beneficent agencies which in their operation tend to bring to the homes of the poor, in greater degree than ever, more and more of the luxuries of the rich, and into their lives more of sweetness and light. The only people who have reason to fear trusts are those who trust them.

Baha'i Comment

Carnegie TEXT here.

Baha'i Comment